Napoleon & The Shroud

Napoleon and The Christ-2

‘An inspiring book about a primal force of history and faith’

“Almost since the beginning of time, armies had marched into war bearing symbols of protection from higher powers. Plutarch wrote that in leading his troops Alexander the Great would shift “his lance into his left hand, and with his right appealed to the gods… praying (to) them, if he was really sprung from Zeus, to defend and strengthen the Greeks.” In Biblical times, the high priest Aaron served as a religious figure who traveled together with the military. In feudal Europe, armies carried papal flags to show that their campaigns had the blessing of the church. So, too, Napoleon in his first presiding military assignment to Italy had ignored orders from the French Revolution’s ruling Directory to dethrone Pope Pius VI and shutter the church. Instead Napoleon outfitted each of his regiments with imperial standards that had been blessed by the pope.”

From Napoleon and The Christ, the forthcoming book from author Tony Castro and Lyons Press.

DID NAPOLEON UNVEIL an astonishing truth concealed for centuries? When Napoleon came to power he had the Musée du Louvre, located on Paris’ Right Bank, renamed in his honor — and soon the Musée Napoleon was overflowing with the artistic spoils of war as Bonaparte’s Grand Army swept across the continent. Among the cultural artifacts that made their way to Paris were hundreds of paintings and sculptures, including every image Napoleon could find of Jesus Christ,as well as the sacred relics from the crucifixion. Why? Why this obsession from the conqueror who had fought endlessly with Pope Pius VII who ultimately excommunicated him? What did Napoleon know that had eluded everyone else for over seventeen centuries?

NAPOLEON & THE CHRIST

By TONY CASTRO

“I owe no account of my administration

to the pope — only to God and Jesus Christ.”

                                    Napoleon Bonaparte

In Napoleon and The Christ, Napoleon Bonaparte is on a quest perhaps even more mystically enchanting than that for the Holy Grail as he conquers Europe and amasses troves of art treasures looking for the mysterious, possibly even magical religious relic of Jesus Christ that he believes holds the key to his ultimate destiny.

Napoleon Bonaparte wasn’t an emperor — he was a Christ in his own mind. This eccentricity was the product of his ambition and his faith, and Napoleon and The Christ is the story of arguably the two most remarkable figures of world history — and how their lives intersect in the French Revolution era: the greatest military general searching for answers in the believed-to-be-miraculous burial shroud of Christendom’s prince of peace.

The new French ruler had all of France and much of Europe under his thumb, but what obsessed and drove him mad were the relics of the Passion of Jesus Christ: a piece of the cross, a nail from the crucifixion, the crown of thorns, and, most of all — the Shroud of Turin, the linen cloth bearing the image of a crucified man believed to be the historical Jesus of Nazareth. He rescued many of these relics from the leaders of the French Revolution who wanted them destroyed and then had them protected under guard at Notre Dame Cathedral.

Ah, but the shroud. Napoleon and The Christ unveils how Napoleon finally came to possess the burial cloth, which wasn’t seen at Turin from shortly before Bonaparte took power until after his defeat.

The relationship between Napoleon and the Roman Catholic Church was an important aspect of his rule, as well as his life… and one long misunderstood by the world outside Catholicism. Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769, the Feast of the Assumption, one of the major feast day celebrated by the Church. He was, if not religious, deeply spiritual and superstitious to a fault. He also greatly understood the power of a religious majority in Europe.

Scholars in the fields of history and religion have historically explored the subject of Napoleon’s complicated relationship with the church. However, none of these works have addressed the specific topic of Napoleon and the single religious icon that numerous popes, before and since, have proclaimed to be the Catholic faith’s “most splendid relic of the passion and the resurrection… a powerful symbol of Christ’s suffering” — the Shroud of Turin, the linen cloth bearing the image of a crucified man who is believed to be the historical Jesus of Nazareth.

Napoleon was one of those rare men who move history and mold the destiny of their own times and of generations to come — in a very concrete sense, our own world is the result of Napoleon,

TONY CASTRO is a Harvard and Baylor University-educated historian, Napoleon Bonaparte scholar and author of several books, including the landmark civil rights history Chicano Power: The Emergence of Mexican America, which Publishers Weekly acclaimed as “brilliant… a valuable contribution to the understanding of our time.”

He is also the author of critically recognized biographies of Ernest Hemingway and baseball legends Mickey Mantle and Joe DiMaggio, with a forthcoming dual biography of Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig (Triumph Books) in April 2018.

He is currently working on a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte.

As a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University, Tony studied under Homeric scholar and translator Robert Fitzgerald, Mexican Nobel laureate Octavio Paz, and French history scholars Laurence Wylie and Stanley and Inge Hoffman.

The dust jacket photo for Napoleon and The Christ is from a painting at Versailles known as Bonaparte au Pont d’Arcole, 1796, by Antoine-Jean Gros, showing Napoleon leading his troops in storming the bridge.

‘Un livre inspirant sur une force primale de l’histoire et de la foi’

“Presque depuis le début des temps, les armées avaient marché en guerre, portant des symboles de protection contre les puissances supérieures.Plutarque écrivit qu’en dirigeant ses troupes Alexandre le Grand déplaçait” sa lance dans sa main gauche, et de sa droite appelait les dieux … en les priant, s’il était vraiment issu de Zeus, de défendre et de fortifier les Grecs. “Dans les temps bibliques, le grand prêtre Aaron a servi comme une figure religieuse qui a voyagé avec l’armée En Europe féodale, les armées ont porté des drapeaux De même, Napoléon, dans sa première affectation militaire présidentielle en Italie, avait ignoré les ordres du Directoire de la Révolution française de détrôner le pape Pie VI et de fermer l’église. régiments avec des normes impériales qui avaient été bénis par le pape. “

De Napoléon et Le Christ, qui commémorant le 250e anniversaire de la naissance de Napoléon Bonaparte.

DAP NAPOLEON DÉVOILE-T-IL une vérité étonnante cachée depuis des siècles? Quand Napoléon est arrivé au pouvoir, il a renommé le Musée du Louvre, situé sur la rive droite de Paris, et bientôt le Musée Napoléon débordait du butin artistique de la guerre alors que la Grande Armée de Bonaparte traversait le continent. Parmi les artefacts culturels qui ont fait leur chemin à Paris étaient des centaines de peintures et de sculptures, y compris chaque image que Napoléon pouvait trouver de Jésus-Christ, ainsi que les reliques sacrées de la crucifixion. Pourquoi? Pourquoi cette obsession du conquérant qui s’est battu sans relâche avec le pape Pie VII qui l’a finalement excommunié? Que savait Napoléon qui avait échappé à tout le monde pendant plus de dix-sept siècles?

Napoléon et le Christ

Par TONY CASTRO

“Je ne dois aucun compte de mon administration

au pape — seulement à Dieu et à Jésus-Christ. “

                                  —Napoléon Bonaparte

Dans Napoléon et le Christ, Napoléon Bonaparte poursuit une quête peut-être encore plus mystique que celle du Saint-Graal alors qu’il conquiert l’Europe et amasse des trésors artistiques à la recherche de la relique religieuse mystérieuse, voire magique, de Jésus-Christ qu’il croit détenir la clé de son destin ultime.

Napoléon Bonaparte n’était pas un empereur – il était un Christ dans son propre esprit. Cette excentricité était le produit de son ambition et de sa foi, et Napoléon et le Christ sont sans doute les deux figures les plus remarquables de l’histoire du monde — et comment leurs vies se croisent à l’époque de la Révolution française. le linceul d’enterrement du croyant à être miraculeux du prince de la paix de la chrétienté.

Le nouveau dirigeant français avait toute la France et une grande partie de l’Europe sous son pouce, mais ce qui l’obsédait et le rendait fou, ce sont les reliques de la Passion de Jésus-Christ: un morceau de croix, un clou de la crucifixion, la couronne d’épines, et, surtout, le Suaire de Turin, la toile de lin portant l’image d’un homme crucifié, supposé être le Jésus historique de Nazareth. Il a sauvé un grand nombre de ces reliques des dirigeants de la Révolution française qui voulaient les détruire et les a ensuite protégés sous la garde de la cathédrale Notre-Dame.

Ah, mais le linceul. Napoléon et le Christ dévoilent comment Napoléon finit par posséder l’étoffe funéraire, qui ne fut pas vue à Turin peu de temps avant que Bonaparte prenne le pouvoir jusqu’à sa défaite.

La relation entre Napoléon et l’Église catholique romaine était un aspect important de sa domination, ainsi que de sa vie … et longtemps incomprise par le monde extérieur au catholicisme. Napoléon est né le 15 août 1769, la fête de l’Assomption, l’une des grandes fêtes célébrées par l’Église. Il était, sinon religieux, profondément spirituel et superstitieux à une faute. Il a également beaucoup compris le pouvoir d’une majorité religieuse en Europe.

Les chercheurs dans les domaines de l’histoire et de la religion ont historiquement exploré le sujet de la relation compliquée de Napoléon avec l’église. Cependant, aucune de ces œuvres n’a abordé le thème spécifique de Napoléon et l’unique icône religieuse que de nombreux papes, avant et depuis, ont proclamé être la «plus belle relique de la passion et de la résurrection … un puissant symbole de la souffrance du Christ ” — le Linceul de Turin, la toile de lin portant l’image d’un homme crucifié qui est censé être le Jésus historique de Nazareth.

TONY CASTRO est un historien diplômé de Harvard et de l’Université Baylor, érudit de Napoléon Bonaparte et auteur de plusieurs livres, y compris l’histoire historique des droits civiques Chicano Power: L’émergence de l’Amérique mexicaine, que la publication Publishers Weekly acclamé comme “brillant … une contribution précieuse à la compréhension de notre temps.”

Il est également l’auteur de biographies critiques d’Ernest Hemingway et des légendes du baseball Mickey Mantle et Joe DiMaggio, avec une double biographie de Babe Ruth et Lou Gehrig (Triumph Books) en avril 2018.

Il travaille actuellement sur une biographie de Napoléon Bonaparte.

En tant que boursier Nieman à l’Université Harvard, Tony a étudié sous la direction de Robert Fitzgerald, érudit et traducteur homérique, Octavio Paz, lauréat mexicain du prix Nobel, et Laurence Wylie, Stanley et Inge Hoffman, chercheurs en histoire française.

La photo de la jaquette de Napoléon et du Christ est tirée d’un tableau de Versailles, connu sous le nom de Bonaparte au Pont d’Arcole, de 1796, par Antoine-Jean Gros, montrant Napoléon menant ses troupes à l’assaut du pont.

What Eric Garcetti’s White House dreams mean for Latinos

Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garretti, here greeting then President Barak Obama, has let it be known that he is thinking of running for the Presidency.

Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garretti, here greeting then President Barak Obama, has let it be known that he is thinking of running for the Presidency.

IF ERIC GARCETTI RUNS FOR PRESIDENT, what will it mean for Hispanics not only in his hometown but beyond?

For Garcetti is the new face of being Latino in America, even as some of his critics have charged in the past  that he wasn’t Hispanic enough, raising a more serious question in this nation’s multi-ethnic society:

Who is or who isn’t Latino?

As for Garcetti, Los Angeles’ 46-year-old mayor’s grandfather was born in Mexico. His great-grandfather, Massimo Garcetti, was a Mexican judge who was hanged during the Mexican Revolution. Garcetti speaks perfect Spanish. He not only considers himself Hispanic, he has also called himself Chicano.

“I’m just your average Mexican-American Jewish Italian,” Garcetti told the 2016 Democratic Convention where he liberally sprinkled his address with Spanish phrases. In his address he described his Italian-Mexican grandfather’s journey across the U.S. border as an infant and the persecution faced by his maternal ancestors, Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe and Russia.

His Latino critics, though, may have been judging Garcetti as much on his skin coloration. He is as huero as they come in a city and in the Southwest where caramel brown-skinned Mexican Americans make up the majority of Latinos.

Perhaps those critics don’t watch Spanish televisions novelas which is full of hueros speaking Spanish – and on which Garcetti would easily pass.

Just as he easily has passed the test among Latino voters in Los Angeles where, they have largely voted for Garcetti – though in his first mayoral campaign his opponent in a runoff  had the lion’s share of endorsements from Hispanic politicians and leaders, including farm workers co-founder Dolores Huerta, County Supervisor Gloria Molina and Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa’s cousin, Assembly Speaker John Perez.

Villaraigosa, who didn’t endorse in that race, had been mayor and city’s consummate Latino politician – the first Hispanic elected mayor in modern times and at one time the hope of Latino aspirations to higher office.

But he left with those hopes dashed, though he is running for governor next year, and replaced both in office and in promise by Garcetti, who wasted little time in being embraced by all the Latino organizations, especially those that lean Democratically, looking for a fresh face for national leadership.

In his time as mayor, Garcetti has matched or exceeded Villaraigosa’s appointments of Latinos to city boards and commissions — and he has been at the leadership in making Los Angeles a sanctuary city for the undocumented and DREAMers.

“I am proud [that}Los Angeles is the strongest defender of immigrants perhaps of any city in this country,” he told NPR earlier this year. “we absolutely are a city that not only does provide sanctuary to immigrants, but we defend them. I think that’s a step further.

“And instead of getting caught up in terms, it’s important for us to do the work to defend refugees, immigrants, legal immigrants and those undocumented immigrants who haven’t committed serious violent felonies who we should make citizens. And I think the proof is in the pudding. LA stands strong. We are probably the strongest city in the country when it comes to that, and we’re not going to back down.”

In Garcetti, America’s young DREAMers have an ideal role model and candidate: A former Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, one of the few American Latinos so honored; a graduate of Columbia who also studied at the London School of Economics; the son of a former district attorney; a lieutenant in the U.S. Naval Reserves; and scandal-free, married to Amy Wakeland with whom he has a daughter, Maya Juanita, a name after any Latino’s heart.

Add to that a built-in political asset that few other Latino politicians have.

Garcetti is Jewish. Jews in Los Angeles today are celebrating that he has been the city’s first Jewish mayor.

“Weekends involved bowls of menudo at my grandparents’ and bagels at my cousins’ house,” Garcetti says of his childhood with a Mexican and Jewish background. “I think if you’re Latino, you’re very comfortable with the idea of mestizo, being mixed.

“So I kind of joke that I’m mestizo double, double mixed.”

It enabled Garcetti to fashion a coalition built around two of the most powerful political elements in Los Angeles – and in America today – Latinos and Jews.

It is also a natural native constituency for Garcetti that now has almost elevated him to a recognizably national level and the precipice of even higher office in America.

And in upsetting preconceived notions about what being Hispanic and what Latino power is today, Garcetti has shown he may have a unique understanding that Latino voters want more than just pandering to their ethnicity

“My grandparents were from northern Mexico, Chihuahua and Sonora,” Garcetti told a Latino group in Spanish at one of his mayoral campaign stops. “But I don’t want your vote just because I speak Spanish.”

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